Full Report

Christian Minority

82.    Egypt is home to the largest Christian community in the Arab world. The Special Rapporteur interviewed Coptic Egyptians forced to leave their homes and villages in Upper Egypt after community conflicts with Muslim neighbours. Forced evictions of Coptic families were also reported in Basra village, Ameriya/Alexandria, in Tud/Luxor, in Shebin al- Qanatir/Qulubiya, and in Maiana Bahnasia and Kafr Darwish/Beni Suef.

83.    The Special Rapporteur learned that in some instances forced evictions were ordered by community reconciliation mechanisms that serve as dispute resolution tools. However, these reconciliation mechanisms do not necessarily ensure a fair hearing for members of minorities, nor are their rulings always in conformity with national or international human rights law. State officials have been present at some community reconciliation sessions, but reportedly have failed to intervene when rulings legitimised the arbitrary expulsion of Coptic families from their homes and sometimes expressed public support for such decisions. Official judicial bodies have also failed to provide legal protection against community reconciliation decisions and law enforcement authorities have, in several instances, refused to provide security to those who wanted to return to their homes. 

A nun cries as she stands at the scene inside Cairo's Coptic cathedral,

following a bombing, in Egypt December 11, 2016.

Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh



President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi is the leader of Egypt.



10 million Christians live in Egypt, making up 10 per cent of Egypt’s population of 99.4 million. That might sound like a small proportion, but Egypt is home to half of all Christians in the Middle East.


Egypt is a strongly Islamic nation. Just under 90 per cent of the population of Egypt are Sunni Muslims.

Al-Azhar University in Cairo is considered to be the oldest and the most prestigious centre of advanced Islamic studies among Sunni Muslims and attracts students from all over the Middle East. President al-Sisi has called upon scholars at the university to fight radicalism and introduce reforms in Islamic teaching. However, in rural and impoverished areas in particular, radical imams and less tolerant brands of Islam are growing in prominence. The government is making efforts to reverse this trend, but has not been very successful so far.

SCW Egypt report


Commentary on the current state of Freedom of Religion or Belief in Egypt

All Party Parliamentary Group, House of Commons UK



This is not an official publication of the House of Commons or the House of Lords. All-Party Groups are informal groups of Members of both Houses with a common interest in particular issues. The views expressed in this report are those of the Groups.

Bombing of schools by Saudi Arabia-led coalition a flagrant attack on future of Yemen’s children

11 December 2015, 00:01 UTC

Saudi Arabia-led coalition forces have carried out a series of air strikes targeting schools that were still in use, in violation of international humanitarian law, and hampering access to education for thousands of Yemen’s children, said Amnesty International in a new briefing published today. The coalition forces are armed by states including the USA and UK.

A report on Christians oppressed for their Faith 2013-2015.

Christians – already the world's most persecuted faith – are suffering worse persecution, violence and intimidation.

In 20 of the 30 countries assessed, the situation has worsened since 2011. In others where the problems were already extreme, there has been little or no change. In some countries Christianity now risks being wiped out, and oppression and exodus threaten Christianity's status as a worldwide religion.

On these pages you can see, at a glance, the key findings of our new Persecuted and Forgotten? report, as well as browsing our detailed country profiles and incident reports in more depth.

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor

International Religious Freedom Report for 2013 

International Religious Freedom Report for 2013 

Executive Summary 

Egypt, on multiple occasions organized groups attacked churches and Christian-owned homes and businesses and then looted and torched the properties. Islamist-led mobs carried out acts of violence, intimidation, compelled expulsions, and punishment against Christians, especially in Upper Egypt. Attacks on Christians spiked August 14 -17 when, according to NGO reports, assailants attacked at least 42 churches in various governorates, in addition to schools, orphanages, and other Christian-affiliated facilities. The violence resulted in the looting and destruction of at least 37 churches and the deaths of at least six Christians who were targeted because of their religious identity. On June 23, a mob of thousands of angry villagers led by Salafist sheikhs killed four Shia citizens, including a prominent cleric, in a village near Cairo. The lynching followed months of government and official Islamic anti-Shia rhetoric and was immediately preceded by incendiary speech at a mosque. In June then-President Morsy attended a televised conference at which a Salafist sheikh described Shia as “non-believers who must be killed,” according to a report by Human Rights Watch (HRW).

In Egypt, the President condemned sectarian violence, including attacks on churches. Secretary of State Kerry has also emphasized the importance of ensuring freedom of religion for all Egyptians, regardless of their faith, with equal rights and protections under the law.

In Egypt, our programs are developing Arabic-language and English-language educational materials that encourage diversity and understanding of others.

Study to European Parliament concerning Human Rights of Minorities and Focus on Copts
"Yet Copts do not reject the engagement of the EU with Coptic concerns when they are framed as part of broader Egyptian concerns. According to Ibrahim Habib, president of United Copts of Great Britain, when asked what the EU could or should do to safeguard Coptic rights his answer did not include any request for supporting Copts as a specific group. Instead he called on the EU to actively support democratic values and the promotion of literacy and educational programmes, gender equality and a secular state. He also called for the Muslim Brotherhood to be declared a terrorist organisation.52"
human rights in eu external relation.


Egypt’s religious minorities bear the brunt of renewed insecurity, new report

9 December 2013


Egypt’s January 25 Revolution was driven by a demand for greater liberty, but insecurity and sectarian violence since then has increased, and the country’s religious minorities are bearing the brunt, says an international rights organisation in a new report.

Minority Rights Group International’s (MRG) report,
No Change in Sight: The situation of religious minorities in post-Mubarak Egypt, highlights the role of government policy, restrictive legislation, police inaction, irresponsible media coverage and the rise of religious hate speech, in encouraging division and instability in the country since the 2011 revolution.

Human Rights

Motion to Take Note

11.37 am

Moved by Lord Alton of Liverpool

That this House takes note of Her Majesty’s Government’s policy towards countries responsible for violations of human rights.

21 Nov 2013 : Column 1071

Lord Alton of Liverpool (CB): My Lords, in just under three weeks’ time, we will mark the 65th anniversary of the adoption of a declaration which asserted that,

“disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want”.

It is as much a declaration of human dignity as a declaration of human rights. I hope that those words and the declaration’s 30 articles will serve as the architecture for today’s debate. These rights are universal and not available for selective enforcement according to culture, tradition or convenience.

A Guide by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Violence Against Copts in Egypt


Jason Brownlee


The Egyptian Orthodox Christian community—the Copts—has been the target of violence and discrimination since the 1970s and especially following the revolution that overthrew Hosni Mubarak. The Egyptian state has done little to remedy the situation and has at times enabled the conflict between Muslims and Christians. Achieving religious freedom and equality depends on building state institutions that can guarantee all citizens’ constitutional rights.

Eman Babih

Internet Marketing & Social Media Expert

Report On Brotherhood Organization Crimes Against Christians In Egypt


the recent terror attack by gunmen opened fire on the Church of the Virgin in Cairo AlWarrak Area 300x288 Report On Brotherhood Organization Crimes Against Christians In Egypt

20/10/2013 the recent terror attack by gunmen opened fire on the Church of the Virgin in Cairo Al-Warrak Area, 18 got seriously injured and 5 got killed including Children and Women


Egypt failing to stop 'deeply disturbing' attacks on Coptic Christians

‘Failure to bring to justice those responsible for sectarian attacks sends the message that Copts and other religious minorities are fair game’ - Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui

The authorities in Egypt are failing to prevent “deeply disturbing” attacks on the country’s Coptic Christian minority, said Amnesty International today in a new report (9 October), and the organisation is calling for an investigation into a series of deadly sectarian incidents. Read the report

Press releases

Egypt: Evidence points to torture carried out by Morsi supporters

Evidence, including testimonies from survivors, indicates that supporters of deposed President Mohamed Morsi tortured individuals from a rival political camp, said Amnesty International.

Anti-Morsi protesters told Amnesty International how they were captured, beaten, subjected to electric shocks or stabbed by individuals loyal to the former President. Since mass rival rallies began in late June, as of 28 July, eight bodies have arrived at the morgue in Cairo bearing signs of torture. At least five of these were found near areas where pro-Morsi sit-ins were being held.

“Allegations that torture is being carried out by individuals are extremely serious and must be investigated as a matter of urgency,” said Hassiba Hadj Sahraoui, Deputy Director for the Middle East and North Africa at Amnesty International.

“The apparent use of torture for reprisal attacks is unacceptable. People should not take the law into their own hands. Political leaders have a responsibility to condemn these criminal acts and call on their supporters to renounce such human rights abuses. The Egyptian government must not, however, use these crimes, carried out by few, as a pretext to collectively punish all pro-Morsi supporters or use excessive force to disperse their sit-ins.”

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